In the wild a plant and its pests are continually coevolving, in a dance of resistance and conquest that can have no ultimate victory. But coevolution ceases in an orchard of grafted trees, since they are genetically identical from generation to generation. The problem very simply is that the apple trees no longer reproduce sexually, as they do when they’re grown from seed, and sex is nature’s way of creating fresh genetic combinations. At the same time the viruses, bacteria, fungi, and insects keep very much at it, reproducing sexually and continuing to evolve until eventually they hit on the precise genetic combination that allowsthem to overcome whatever resistance the apples may have once possessed. Suddenly total victory is in the pests’ sight-unless, that is, people come to the tree’s rescue, wielding the tools of modern chemistry.
The Botany of desire - Michael Pollan